زعفران و روش های تشخیص اصالت آن

اسانس گل رز
2019-09-26
بیدمشک
2019-10-22

زعفران ماده ای بسیار با کیفیت است که از کلاله های (رشته های) خشک گل زعفران (کروکوس ساتیووس) بدست می آید و به دلیل خواص رنگ دهی و عطر بخشی آن، عمدتاً در مواد غذایی به عنوان ادویه و یا به منظور تغییر رنگ غذا استفاده می شود. علاوه بر آن، دارای خواص دارویی و درمانی نیز می باشد.

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ایران اولین و بزرگترین تولیدکننده زعفران در دنیا می باشد.

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این ادویه، یکی از گران ترین محصولات کشاورزی در دنیاست. در حقیقت، هزینه و نیروی کار مورد نیاز برای کشت و زراعت زعفران، به علاوه ی حجم زیادی از گل برای به دست آوردن مقداری از آن، در قیمت بالای آن تأثیر دارند. به همین جهت، تقلب و کلاهبرداری زیادی در این محصول صورت می گیرد؛ یعنی درصدی از سایر بخش های گل را به آن اضافه می کنند. علاوه بر بحث تقلب در این کار، ارزیابی مبدأ و منشأ زعفران نیز مهم است، زیرا کیفیت آن به شرایط پدو-کلیمیایی (خاک و اقلیم) و زراعت نیز بسیار ارتباط دارد.

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نحوه تشخیص زعفران اصل از تقلبی:

1- زعفران با کیفیت باید کاملاً قرمز باشد؛ یعنی بدون کلاله زرد باشد و یا اینکه تعداد کلاله های زرد در آن بسیار کم باشد.
2- کلاله ها باید به شکل ترومپت یا شیپور باشند.

3- مقدار کمی زعفران (به اندازه یک سر انگشت) را به آب سرد اضافه کنید. اگر زعفران، خالص و اصل باشد، به آرامی در آب رنگی طلایی پخش می کند.

اما زعفران تقلبی بلافاصله رنگ خود را در آب سرد پخش می کند. علاوه بر آن، رشته های آن نیز سفید می شوند. این رشته های سفید می توانند کلاله های ذرت باشند که روی آن ها را با اسپری، قرمز کرده اند. این در حالیست که زعفران خالص رنگ قرمز خود را حفظ می کند.

4- رنگ آب با زعفران تقلبی به رنگ نارنجی تیره در می آید و رشته های زعفران نیز بین دو انگشت دست له می شوند.

در حالی که رنگ آب با زعفران اصل به رنگ زرد طلایی در می آید و رنگ رشته ها همچنان قرمز بوده و نیز بین دو انگشت دست له نمی شوند.

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Sources:
1- B. Senizza, G. Rocchetti, S. Ghisoni, et al., “Identification of phenolic markers for saffron authenticity and origin: An untargeted metabolomics approach”, Food Research International
2- YouTube

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